|What is really profound in this work?|
|the analyses and interpretations concluding LC1, undertaken and written before The Intimate Study of LC2, introduced new ideas and new goals into the MIT Artificial Intelligence community:
The conclusions of this study were revised and extended for inclusion in “Computer Experience and Cognitive Development.”
|Below are first, the short argument I gave Papert, followed by the interpretation based on the study growing out of that point of view (as published in “Computer Experience and Cognitive Development.”)
On Not Planning (1976)
The Development of Objectives, (1977, rev.1984)
A cluster of four ideas suggested a new approach to understanding learning.
A.bricolage as a metaphor for the mind under self-construction.
B. understanding Peircean abduction as “competing cognitive computational processses” is a way of fitting self-construction into logical processes.
C. the unified generalization proposal, a scheme through which an active procedure is either incrementally extended (on success) or generates a deferred objective (on failure) for later activation and “symbolic realization” in a different context.
D. learning (seen as a side effect of other activity) can occasionally produce saltations in knowledge and behavior, exemplified in the invention of writing and an explanation of the genesis of reptilian flight.
|LC1 showed a way forward by which the analysis of case studies could pass from being the seed-bed of theories to a more dependable method for understanding in detail the development of minds (potential for which we inherit through our genes, as those were shaped by evolution) such as we construct for ourselves through the course of our personal histories. LC2 and LC3 are attempts to make that insight concrete and useful in answering important questions.||When I asked him about the future of Psychology, in the late 1970’s, Papert predicted that there would be a division of the discipline into “bio-psychology” and “epistemology.” If “Neuro-psychology” marks a move towards the former by many in the field, case study will remain the data gathering method most suitable for the later, as will interpretation of particular cases remain its forte and source of power.|
|A sidelight: reviewers of Cognition and Computers noted its usefulness for educators. Though gratified by that reception, what is more useful is to see in LC1 progress in analysis from:|
the student’s focus on ideas
the engineer’s focus on what we can build
the observer’s exploration in other contexts
the analyst’s construction of a sensible story
the scientist’s integration of observation, explanation, and ideas.
|The path of these analyses show a progressive decentration with a move from ideas to observation, analysis, and back again.
As in: Emerging Forms in Turtle Geometry
As in: Three Encounters with Number
As in: Sketches of Natural Learning
As in: Extending a Powerful Idea
As in: The Development of Objectives
|Papers published in Cognition And Computers LC1b-NLS||with other chapters by B. DuBoulay, M. Hughes & H. MacLeod. (John Wiley, 1986)|
|LC1bA0 Natural Learning: People, Computers, and Everyday Number Knowledge|
|LC1bA1 Emerging Forms in Turtle Geometry Reflective Thinking|
|LC1bA2 Three Encounters with number: Looking at Learning||
I II III IV 20 23 24 24 +20 +26 +26 +26 ---- ---- ---- ---- 40 49 410 50
|LC1bA3 Sketches of Natural Learning: Natural Learning||Dimensioned number subtraction: 9 feet minus 4 inches (in relation to place value):
9' --> 8' 12" -4" --> -0' 4" ---- -------- ?? --> 8' 8"
|LC1bA4 Extending a Powerful Idea: Exploratory Thinking||
the “paper-rings” puzzle
|Relationship to Another Study. As a study of one child’s learning in a computer rich milieu, the material presented in this collection goes beyond the studies of Cognition and Computers and the companion piece, Computer Experience and CognitiveDevelopment, the more intensive study and analysis of my daughter’s learning in her sixth year.
LC1 began earlier. Both studies took place in the same laboratory, and overlapped in time. They both are, in fact, different aspects of the same effort to explore the processes underlying the development of learned, every-day knowledge.
Rob and Miriam, two peas in a pod.
VN42.01: Working and Playing Together
|LC1bA5 The Development of Objectives: Expressive Thinking
Chapter 1 in Computer Experience and Cognitive Development
|LC1cO1 Corpus Robby: The Intimate Study and Earlier|| Starting with Robby
Advice to a Teacher
ZOOM a Logo language interface
ADDvisor a Logo language Addition Aid
Designing Computer Based Microworlds: introduction with After Thoughts
|LC1c-text Index of TIS Vignettes focused on Rob|
|LC1c-video Index of TIS Videos focused on Rob.|